The town is named for Stone Mountain, the largest exposed granite dome in North America. Stone Mountain harbors plant and animal life found no other place in the world. It is also the site of a famous giant carving commemorating the military leaders of the Confederacy as well as a state park and museum, including a steam railroad.
The historic train depot is home to the former City Hall and the Police Department. The South wing of the depot was constructed in 1856. The north wing was constructed in 1914. It is the oldest structure that was burned by General Sherman durning the Civil War that is still in use today.
In 1822 the area that now makes up the City of Stone Mountain was made a part of the newly formed Dekalb County. A post office was created in 1834 on the old Augusta Road, and Andrew Johnson built a hotel along the road in 1836. At around the same time, Aaron Cloud built an observation tower at the summit of the mountain. Visitors to the mountain would travel to the area by rail and road, and then walk up the 1.1 mile mountaintop trail to the top, where Cloud also had a restaurant and club.
By 1839 a general store was added and a village was established under the name New Gibraltar. The name was officially changed to Stone Mountain by the Georgia legislature in 1847. During the Civil War, Stone Mountain village was destroyed by men under the command of General John McPherson on July 19, 1864.